Q&A : How does GL know which value set to use for a segment

Are Value Set IDs specifically associated with a SOB?

There is this table fnd_id_flex_segments which maintains the mapping between Chart of accounts, segment name and the value set
The mapping between SOB and Chart of accounts is maintained in the gl_sets_of_books table

This gives details of the tables http://www.appsbi.com/2006/09/06/oracle-fnd-key-tables-fnd_id_flexs-fnd_id_flex_segments-1/

In the fnd_id_flex_segments, there is a structure column (id_flex_num) which maps to the COA id, segment column and flex_value_set_id column

You can query the fnd_flex_values with the flex_value_set_id from the above table.

Here is a query
SELECT kfc.segment_name,
kff.id_flex_code flex_code,
kff.id_flex_name flex_name
FROM fnd_id_flex_segments_vl kfc,
fnd_id_flexs kff
WHERE kfc.id_flex_code = kff.id_flex_code

fnd_id_flex_segments_vl is a view

Value Sets are used to control the values that can be used in a  segment of a flexfield.  When you define the flexfield, you  define the segments that it will have and the Value Set to be  used.  The same Value Set can be used in more than one segment,  and in more than one flexfield.  When you define a SOB, you  define which accounting flexfield to use.  This flexfield may use more than one Value Set.

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