Overview of Multiple Organizations Architecture for release 11 and prior
The primary objective of multiple organizations architecture, introduced in Oracle Applications Release 10.6, is to secure data from unauthorized access by individuals belonging to different operating units in an enterprise.
A new or fresh installation of an Oracle Applications instance does not automatically enable multiple organizations. The system administrator creates operating units using the Define Organizations window in Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS), and runs the Convert to Multiple Organization program from AD Administrator to enable the multiple organizations feature. Typically, the system administrator defines “MO: Operating Unit” profile at Responsibility and/or User level. The “organization_id” of the “MO: Operating Unit” profile option value filters the transactional data. The CLIENT_INFO application context space stores the multiple organizations context value.
Multi-Org views use the following WHERE clause to filter application records:
‘org_id = substrb(userenv(”CLIENT_INFO”),1,10)’
Overview of Multiple Organizations Access Control Architecture (Release 12)
The Access Control feature in Release 12 allows the user to enter or query records in one or more operating units without changing application responsibility. It is the system administrator’s discretion to either implement the feature or use the same multiple organizations profile option setting available before Release 12 by using the single operating unit mode (i.e. one operating unit for a responsibility).
In Release 12, the multiple organizations context value is no longer initialized by the FND_GLOBAL.APPS_INITIALIZE routine thereby reducing unnecessary context setting and resource consumption for applications that do not use operating unit context for data security.
To use the single operating unit mode, you must set the value for the “Initialization SQL Statement â€“ Custom profile” to “mo_global.init(‘S’,null);”. This initializes the operating unit context based on the “MO: Operating Unit” profile option and the “MO: Security Profile” profile option must not be set.
Fresh install of Release 12 Application is enabled with multiple organizations, however, the system administrator must create operating units to use multi organizations sensitive application products. The user can create new operating units in the Accounting Setup Manager page in addition to HRMS’s Define Organizations page.
Here is some background information
Multiple organizations architecture (Multi-Org) was introduced in Release 10.6 to secure the data by operating unit. In Release 10.7, Oracle added a column ORG_ID to each base table to partition the data by operating units. The partitioned tables are renamed with the suffix, ‘_ALL’, and their corresponding secured views are created in Applications (APPS) schema. The following diagram shows a single organization view in the APPS schema.
Multiple organizations views restrict access by filtering records for an operating unit assigned to the application responsibility set for the “MO: Operating Unit” profile option. This profile option value is cached in application context, and is initialized when calling the FND initialization routine. The FND CLIENT_INFO predicate includes all multiple organizations views and SQL statements that require multiple organizations security. The FND_CLIENT_INFO function retrieves the ORG_ID value stored in the application context. This value is valid for a session, unless explicitly changed by the calling procedure.
Use the _ALL table in the SQL statement to retrieve information irrespective of the operating unit. To increase the flexibility and performance in a multiple organizations environment and provide the same level of data security, the DBMS Virtual Private Database (VPD) feature replaces the CLIENT_INFO function.
Continue reading Multi-Org structure – Vitual Private Database